skrf.media.Media¶
 class skrf.media.Media(frequency=None, z0_port=None, z0_override=None, z0=None)[source]¶
Abstract Base Class for a single mode on a transmission line media.
This class init’s with frequency and z0_port (the port impedance); attributes shared by all media. Methods defined here make use of the properties :
gamma  (complex) media propagation constant
z0  (complex) media characteristic impedance
Which define the properties of a specific media. Any subclass of Media must implement these properties. gamma and z0 should return complex arrays of the same length as frequency. gamma must follow the convention:
positive real(gamma) = attenuation
positive imag(gamma) = forward propagation
 Parameters:
frequency (
Frequency
object or None) – frequency band of this transmission line medium. Defaults to None, which produces a 110ghz band with 101 points.z0_port (number, arraylike, or None) – z0_port is the port impedance for networks generated by the media. If z0_port is not None, the networks generated by the media are renormalized (or in other words embedded) from the characteristic impedance z0 of the media to z0_port. Else if z0_port is None, the networks port impedances will be the raw characteristic impedance z0 of the media. (Default is None)
z0_override (number, arraylike, or None) – z0_override override the characteristic impedance for the media. If z0_override is not None, the networks generated by the media have their characteristic impedance z0 overrided by z0_override. (Default is None)
z0 (number, arraylike, or None) – deprecated parameter, alias to z0_override if z0_override is None. Emmit a deprecation warning.
Notes
Fullwave simulations results can be networks with complex and frequencydependant z0 port impedances. However, the regular touchstone (sparameters) files generated by most VNA measurements are normalized to a single real value, e. g. 1. or 50 ohm. Manually setting the z0_port to a single real value enforce the second behaviour. The default (z0_port = None) is the first behaviour.
Attributes
Characteristic Impedance 

Real (attenuation) component of gamma. 

Imaginary (propagating) component of gamma. 

Propagation constant. 

Number of points of the frequency axis. 

Complex group velocity (in m/s). 

Complex phase velocity (in m/s). 

Return Characteristic Impedance z0_characteristic. 

Characteristic Impedance, \(z_0\). 

Port Impedance. 

Port Impedance. 
Methods
Ideal matched attenuator of a given length. 

Capacitor. 

Copy of this Media object. 

Delayed load. 

Delayed open transmission line. 

Delayed Short. 

Calculate the complex electrical length for a given distance. 

Determines physical distance from a transmission or reflection Network. 

Twoport network for an impedance mismatch. 

Inductor. 

Twoport isolator. 

Transmission line of a given length and impedance. 

Load of given reflection coefficient. 

Lossless, symmetric mismatch defined by its return loss. 

Perfect matched load (\(\Gamma_0 = 0\)). 

Create another mode in this medium. 

Open (\(\Gamma_0 = 1\)). 

Complex random network. 

Resistor. 

Short (\(\Gamma_0 = 1\)) 

Shunts a 

Shunted capacitor. 

Shunted delayed load. 

Shunted delayed open. 

Shunted delayed short. 

Shunted inductor. 

Shunted resistor. 

Ideal, lossless nway splitter. 

Ideal, lossless tee. 

Convert electrical length to physical distance. 

Matched transmission line of length 0. 

Translate various units of distance into meters. 

Complex zeromean gaussian whitenoise network. 

write this media's frequency, gamma, Z0, and z0 to a csv file. 