class, z0=None, ep_r=(1+0j), mu_r=(1+0j), ep_loss_tan=None, mu_loss_tan=None, rho=None, *args, **kwargs)[source]

A plane-wave (TEM Mode) in Freespace.

A Freespace media can be constructed in two ways:
  • from complex, relative permativity and permiability OR
  • from real relative permativity and permiability with loss tangents.

See Examples. There is also a method to initialize from a existing distributed circuit, appropriately named Freespace.from_distributed_circuit()

  • frequency (Frequency object) – frequency band of this transmission line medium
  • z0 (number, array-like, or None) – the port impedance for media. Only needed if its different from the characterisitc impedance of the transmission line. if z0 is None then will default to Z0
  • ep_r (number, array-like) – complex relative permittivity. negative imaginary is lossy.
  • mu_r (number, array-like) – complex relative permeability. negative imaginary is lossy.
  • ep_loss_tan (None, number, array-like) – the loss tangent of the permativity. If not None, imag(ep_r) is ignored.
  • mu_loss_tan (None, number, array-like) – the loss tangent of the permeability. If not None, imag(mu_r) is ignored.
  • **kwargs (*args,) –


>>>from import Freespace >>>from skrf.frequency import Frequency >>>f = Frequency(75,110,101,’ghz’) >>>Freespace(frequency=f, ep_r=11.9) >>>Freespace(frequency=f, ep_r=11.9-1.1j) >>>Freespace(frequency=f, ep_r=11.9, ep_loss_tan=.1) >>>Freespace(frequency=f, ep_r=11.9-1.1j, mu_r = 1.1-.1j)


Z0 Characteristic Impedance, \(Z0\)
alpha real (attenuation) component of gamma
beta imaginary (propagating) component of gamma
ep_with_rho complex permativity with resistivity absorbed into its imaginary component
gamma Propagation Constant, \(\gamma\)
rho conductivty in ohm*m
v_g Complex group velocity (in m/s)
v_p Complex phase velocity (in m/s)


__init__ Initialize self.
attenuator Ideal matched attenuator of a given length
capacitor Capacitor
delay_load Delayed load
delay_open Delayed open transmission line
delay_short Delayed Short
electrical_length calculates the electrical length for a given distance
extract_distance Determines physical distance from a transmission or reflection ntwk
from_distributed_circuit initialize a freespace from media.DistributedCirctuit
impedance_mismatch Two-port network for an impedance mismatch
inductor Inductor
isolator two-port isolator
line Transmission line of a given length and impedance
load Load of given reflection coefficient.
lossless_mismatch Lossless, symmetric mismatch defined by its return loss
match Perfect matched load (\(\Gamma_0 = 0\)).
mode create another mode in this medium
open Open (\(\Gamma_0 = 1\))
random Complex random network.
resistor Resistor
short Short (\(\Gamma_0 = -1\))
shunt Shunts a Network
shunt_capacitor Shunted capacitor
shunt_delay_load Shunted delayed load
shunt_delay_open Shunted delayed open
shunt_delay_short Shunted delayed short
shunt_inductor Shunted inductor
splitter Ideal, lossless n-way splitter.
tee Ideal, lossless tee.
theta_2_d Converts electrical length to physical distance.
thru Matched transmission line of length 0.
to_meters Translate various units of distance into meters
white_gaussian_polar Complex zero-mean gaussian white-noise network.
write_csv write this media’s frequency,gamma,Z0, and z0 to a csv file.