Source code for

.. module::

freespace (:mod:``)

A plane-wave (TEM Mode) in Freespace.

Represents a plane-wave in a homogeneous freespace, defined by
the space's relative permittivity and relative permeability.

import warnings
from scipy.constants import  epsilon_0, mu_0
from numpy import real, imag, cos, sqrt,tan,array, ones
from .distributedCircuit import DistributedCircuit
from .media import Media
from import materials

[docs]class Freespace(Media): ''' A plane-wave (TEM Mode) in Freespace. A Freespace media can be constructed in two ways: * from complex, relative permativity and permiability OR * from real relative permativity and permiability with loss tangents. See Examples. There is also a method to initialize from a existing distributed circuit, appropriately named :func:`Freespace.from_distributed_circuit` Parameters ----------- frequency : :class:`~skrf.frequency.Frequency` object frequency band of this transmission line medium z0 : number, array-like, or None the port impedance for media. Only needed if its different from the characterisitc impedance of the transmission line. if z0 is None then will default to Z0 ep_r : number, array-like complex relative permittivity. negative imaginary is lossy. mu_r : number, array-like complex relative permeability. negative imaginary is lossy. ep_loss_tan: None, number, array-like the loss tangent of the permativity. If not None, imag(ep_r) is ignored. mu_loss_tan: None, number, array-like the loss tangent of the permeability. If not None, imag(mu_r) is ignored. \*args, \*\*kwargs : arguments and keyword arguments Examples ----------- >>>from import Freespace >>>from skrf.frequency import Frequency >>>f = Frequency(75,110,101,'ghz') >>>Freespace(frequency=f, ep_r=11.9) >>>Freespace(frequency=f, ep_r=11.9-1.1j) >>>Freespace(frequency=f, ep_r=11.9, ep_loss_tan=.1) >>>Freespace(frequency=f, ep_r=11.9-1.1j, mu_r = 1.1-.1j) '''
[docs] def __init__(self, frequency=None, z0=None, ep_r=1+0j, mu_r=1+0j, ep_loss_tan=None,mu_loss_tan=None, rho=None, *args, **kwargs): Media.__init__(self, frequency=frequency,z0=z0) self.ep_r = ep_r self.mu_r = mu_r self.rho=rho self.ep_loss_tan =ep_loss_tan
self.mu_loss_tan =mu_loss_tan def __str__(self): f=self.frequency output = 'Freespace Media. %i-%i %s. %i points'%\ (f.f_scaled[0],f.f_scaled[-1],f.unit, f.npoints) return output def __repr__(self): return self.__str__() @property def ep(self): if self.ep_loss_tan is not None: ep_r = real(self.ep_r)*(1-1j*self.ep_loss_tan) else: ep_r = self.ep_r return ep_r*epsilon_0 @property def mu(self): if self.mu_loss_tan is not None: mu_r = real(self.mu_r)*(1 -1j*self.mu_loss_tan) else: mu_r = self.mu_r return mu_r*mu_0
[docs] @classmethod def from_distributed_circuit(cls,dc, *args, **kwargs): ''' initialize a freespace from media.DistributedCirctuit Parameters ----------- dc: `` a DistributedCircuit object *args, **kwargs : passed to `Freespace.__init__` Notes -------- Here are the details w = dc.frequency.w z= dc.Z/(w*mu_0) y= dc.Y/(w*epsilon_0) ep_r = -1j*y mu_r = -1j*z ''' w = dc.frequency.w z= dc.Z/(w*mu_0) y= dc.Y/(w*epsilon_0) kw={} kw['ep_r'] = -1j*y kw['mu_r'] = -1j*z kwargs.update(kw)
return cls(frequency=dc.frequency, *args, **kwargs) @property def rho(self): ''' conductivty in ohm*m Parameters -------------- val : float, array-like or str the resistivity in ohm*m. If array-like must be same length as self.frequency. if str, it must be a key in ``. Examples --------- >>> wg.rho = 2.8e-8 >>> wg.rho = 2.8e-8 * ones(len(wg.frequency)) >>> wg.rho = 'al' >>> wg.rho = 'aluminum' ''' return self._rho @rho.setter def rho(self, val): if isinstance(val, str): self._rho = materials[val.lower()]['resistivity(ohm*m)'] else: self._rho=val @property def ep_with_rho(self): ''' complex permativity with resistivity absorbed into its imaginary component ''' if self.rho is not None: return self.ep -1j/(self.rho*self.frequency.w) else: return self.ep @property def gamma(self): ''' Propagation Constant, :math:`\\gamma` Defined as, .. math:: \\gamma = \\sqrt{ Z^{'} Y^{'}} Returns -------- gamma : numpy.ndarray Propagation Constant, Notes --------- The components of propagation constant are interpreted as follows: positive real(gamma) = attenuation positive imag(gamma) = forward propagation ''' ep = self.ep_with_rho return 1j*self.frequency.w * sqrt(ep* @property def Z0(self): ''' Characteristic Impedance, :math:`Z0` .. math:: Z_0 = \\sqrt{ \\frac{Z^{'}}{Y^{'}}} Returns -------- Z0 : numpy.ndarray Characteristic Impedance in units of ohms ''' ep = self.ep_with_rho return sqrt(*ones(len(self))
[docs] def plot_ep(self): self.plot(self.ep_r.real, label=r'ep_r real')
self.plot(self.ep_r.imag, label=r'ep_r imag')
[docs] def plot_mu(self): self.plot(self.mu_r.real, label=r'mu_r real')
self.plot(self.mu_r.imag, label=r'mu_r imag')
[docs] def plot_ep_mu(self): self.plot_ep()