, *args, **kwargs)[source]

Chops a sandwich of identical, reciprocal 2-ports in half.

Given two identical, reciprocal 2-ports measured in series, this returns one.

In other words, given

\[B = A\cdot\cdotA\]

Return A, where A port2 is connected to A port1. The result may be found through signal flow graph analysis and is,

\[a_{11} =\]


a_{22} =


a_{12}^2 = b_{21}(1-


ntwk : Network
a 2-port that is equal to two identical two-ports in cascade