Loss due to finite conductivity and roughness of sidewalls

In units of np/m See property rho for setting conductivity.

Effects of finite conductivity are taken from [1]. If roughness is not None, then its effects the conductivity by

\[\sigma_c = \frac{\sigma}{k_w^2}\]


\[ \begin{align}\begin{aligned}k_w = 1 + e^{(-\delta/2h)^{1.6}}\\\delta = \mbox{skin depth}\\h = \mbox{surface roughness }\end{aligned}\end{align} \]

This is taken from Ansoft HFSS help documents.


[1]Chapter 9, (eq 9.8.1) of Electromagnetic Waves and Antennas by Sophocles J. Orfanidis