Download This Notebook: Plotting.ipynb

# Plotting¶

## Introduction¶

This tutorial describes skrf’s plotting features. If you would like to use skrf’s matplotlib interface with skrf styling, start with this

:

%matplotlib inline
import skrf as rf
rf.stylely()

/home/docs/checkouts/readthedocs.org/user_builds/scikit-rf/conda/latest/lib/python3.5/site-packages/matplotlib/style/core.py:51: UserWarning: Style includes a parameter, 'interactive', that is not related to style.  Ignoring
"to style.  Ignoring".format(key))


## Plotting Methods¶

Plotting functions are implemented as methods of the Network class.

• Network.plot_s_re
• Network.plot_s_im
• Network.plot_s_mag
• Network.plot_s_db

Similar methods exist for Impedance (Network.z) and Admittance Parameters (Network.y),

• Network.plot_z_re
• Network.plot_z_im
• Network.plot_y_re
• Network.plot_y_im

## Smith Chart¶

As a first example, load a Network and plot all four s-parameters on the Smith chart.

:

from skrf import Network

ring_slot = Network('data/ring slot.s2p')
ring_slot.plot_s_smith() :

ring_slot.plot_s_smith(draw_labels=True) Another common option is to draw addmitance contours, instead of impedance. This is controled through the chart_type argument.

:

ring_slot.plot_s_smith(chart_type='y') See skrf.plotting.smith() for more info on customizing the Smith Chart.

## Complex Plane¶

Network parameters can also be plotted in the complex plane without a Smith Chart through Network.plot_s_complex.

:

ring_slot.plot_s_complex()

from matplotlib import pyplot as plt
plt.axis('equal') # otherwise circles wont be circles

:

(-0.855165798772, 0.963732138327, -0.8760764348472001, 0.9024032182652001) ## Log-Magnitude¶

Scalar components of the complex network parameters can be plotted vs frequency as well. To plot the log-magnitude of the s-parameters vs. frequency,

:

ring_slot.plot_s_db() When no arguments are passed to the plotting methods, all parameters are plotted. Single parameters can be plotted by passing indices m and n to the plotting commands (indexing start from 0). Comparing the simulated reflection coefficient off the ring slot to a measurement,

:

from skrf.data import ring_slot_meas
ring_slot.plot_s_db(m=0,n=0, label='Theory')
ring_slot_meas.plot_s_db(m=0,n=0, label='Measurement') ## Phase¶

Plot phase,

:

ring_slot.plot_s_deg() Or unwrapped phase,

:

ring_slot.plot_s_deg_unwrap() Phase is radian (rad) is also available

## Group Delay¶

A Network has a plot() method which creates a rectangular plot of the argument vs frequency. This can be used to make plots are arent ‘canned’. For example group delay

:

gd = abs(ring_slot.s21.group_delay) *1e9 # in ns

ring_slot.plot(gd)
plt.ylabel('Group Delay (ns)')
plt.title('Group Delay of Ring Slot S21')

:

Text(0.5,1,'Group Delay of Ring Slot S21') The components the Impendance and Admittance parameters can be plotted similarly,

:

ring_slot.plot_z_im() :

ring_slot.plot_y_im() ## Customizing Plots¶

The legend entries are automatically filled in with the Network’s Network.name. The entry can be overidden by passing the label argument to the plot method.

:

ring_slot.plot_s_db(m=0,n=0, label = 'Simulation') The frequency unit used on the x-axis is automatically filled in from the Networks Network.frequency.unit attribute. To change the label, change the frequency’s unit.

:

ring_slot.frequency.unit = 'mhz'
ring_slot.plot_s_db(0,0) Other key word arguments given to the plotting methods are passed through to the matplotlib matplotlib.pyplot.plot function.

:

ring_slot.frequency.unit='ghz'
ring_slot.plot_s_db(m=0,n=0, linewidth = 3, linestyle = '--', label = 'Simulation')
ring_slot_meas.plot_s_db(m=0,n=0, marker = 'o', markevery = 10,label = 'Measured') All components of the plots can be customized through matplotlib functions, and styles can be used with a context manager.

:

from matplotlib import pyplot as plt
from matplotlib import style

with style.context('seaborn-ticks'):
ring_slot.plot_s_smith()
plt.xlabel('Real Part');
plt.ylabel('Imaginary Part');
plt.title('Smith Chart With Legend Room');
plt.axis([-1.1,2.1,-1.1,1.1])
plt.legend(loc=5) ## Saving Plots¶

Plots can be saved in various file formats using the GUI provided by the matplotlib. However, skrf provides a convenience function, called skrf.plotting.save_all_figs, that allows all open figures to be saved to disk in multiple file formats, with filenames pulled from each figure’s title,

from skrf.plotting import save_all_figs
save_all_figs('data/', format=['png','eps','pdf'])


## Adding Markers Post Plot¶

A common need is to make a color plot, interpretable in greyscale print. The skrf.plotting.add_markers_to_lines adds different markers each line in a plots after the plot has been made, which is usually when you remember to add them.

:

from skrf import plotting
with style.context('printable'):
ring_slot.plot_s_deg()
plt.legend() # have to re-generate legend


---------------------------------------------------------------------------
FileNotFoundError                         Traceback (most recent call last)
110             try:
--> 111                 rc = rc_params_from_file(style, use_default_template=False)
112                 _apply_style(rc)

~/checkouts/readthedocs.org/user_builds/scikit-rf/conda/latest/lib/python3.5/site-packages/matplotlib/__init__.py in rc_params_from_file(fname, fail_on_error, use_default_template)
1132     """
-> 1133     config_from_file = _rc_params_in_file(fname, fail_on_error)
1134

~/checkouts/readthedocs.org/user_builds/scikit-rf/conda/latest/lib/python3.5/site-packages/matplotlib/__init__.py in _rc_params_in_file(fname, fail_on_error)
1048     rc_temp = {}
-> 1049     with _open_file_or_url(fname) as fd:
1050         try:

58         try:
---> 59             return next(self.gen)
60         except StopIteration:

1033             encoding = "utf-8"
-> 1034         with io.open(fname, encoding=encoding) as f:
1035             yield f

FileNotFoundError: [Errno 2] No such file or directory: 'printable'

During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:

OSError                                   Traceback (most recent call last)
<ipython-input-17-4aa103b0c60f> in <module>
1 from skrf import plotting
----> 2 with style.context('printable'):
3     ring_slot.plot_s_deg()
5     plt.legend() # have to re-generate legend

57     def __enter__(self):
58         try:
---> 59             return next(self.gen)
60         except StopIteration:
61             raise RuntimeError("generator didn't yield") from None

~/checkouts/readthedocs.org/user_builds/scikit-rf/conda/latest/lib/python3.5/site-packages/matplotlib/style/core.py in context(style, after_reset)
146         mpl.rcdefaults()
147     try:
--> 148         use(style)
149     except:
150         # Restore original settings before raising errors during the update.

116                     "valid URL or path; see style.available for list of "
OSError: 'printable' not found in the style library and input is not a valid URL or path; see style.available for list of available styles