network (

Provides a n-port network class and associated functions.

Much of the functionality in this module is provided as methods and properties of the Network Class.

Network Class

Network(file, name, comments, f_unit, s_def, …) A n-port electrical network [#]_.

Building Network

Network.from_z(z, *args, **kw) Create a Network from its Z-parameters

Network Representations

Network.s Scattering parameter matrix.
Network.z Impedance parameter matrix.
Network.y Admittance parameter matrix.
Network.a abcd parameter matrix.
Network.t Scattering transfer parameters

Connecting Networks

connect(ntwkA, k, ntwkB, l, num) connect two n-port networks together.
innerconnect(ntwkA, k, l, num) connect ports of a single n-port network.
cascade(ntwkA, ntwkB) Cascade two 2, 2N-ports Networks together
cascade_list(l) cascade a list of 2N-port networks
de_embed(ntwkA, ntwkB) De-embed ntwkA from ntwkB.
flip(a) invert the ports of a networks s-matrix, ‘flipping’ it over left and right.

Interpolation and Concatenation Along Frequency Axis

stitch(ntwkA, ntwkB, **kwargs) Stitches ntwkA and ntwkB together.
overlap(ntwkA, ntwkB) Returns the overlapping parts of two Networks, interpolating if needed.
Network.resample(freq_or_n, numbers.Number, …) Interpolates s-parameters given a new
Network.interpolate(freq_or_n, …) Interpolate a Network allong frequency axis
Network.interpolate_self(freq_or_n, …) Interpolates s-parameters given a new

Combining Networks

n_oneports_2_nport(ntwk_list, *args, **kwargs) Builds a N-port Network from list of N one-ports
four_oneports_2_twoport(s11, s12, s21, s22, …) Builds a 2-port Network from list of four 1-ports
three_twoports_2_threeport(ntwk_triplet, …) Creates 3-port from three 2-port Networks
n_twoports_2_nport(ntwk_list, nports, offby, …) Builds a N-port Network from list of two-ports
concat_ports(ntwk_list, port_order, *args, **kw) Concatenate networks along the port axis

IO, *args, **kwargs) Read skrf object[s] from a pickle file, obj[, overwrite]) Write skrf object[s] to a file
Network.write(file, *args, **kwargs) Write the Network to disk using the pickle module.
Network.write_touchstone(filename, dir, …) Write a contents of the Network to a touchstone file.*args, **kwargs) Read a Network from a ‘ntwk’ file
Network.write_spreadsheet(*args, **kwargs) Write contents of network to a spreadsheet, for your boss to use.


Network.add_noise_polar(mag_dev, phase_dev, …) adds a complex zero-mean gaussian white-noise.
Network.add_noise_polar_flatband(mag_dev, …) adds a flatband complex zero-mean gaussian white-noise signal of given standard deviations for magnitude and phase
Network.multiply_noise(mag_dev, phase_dev, …) multiplys a complex bivariate gaussian white-noise signal of given standard deviations for magnitude and phase.

Supporting Functions

inv(s) Calculates ‘inverse’ s-parameter matrix, used for de-embedding
connect_s(A, k, B, l) connect two n-port networks’ s-matrices together.
innerconnect_s(A, k, l) connect two ports of a single n-port network’s s-matrix.
s2z(s, z0, Sequence[numbers.Number], …) Convert scattering parameters [1]_ to impedance parameters [2]_
s2y(s, z0, Sequence[numbers.Number], …) convert scattering parameters [#]_ to admittance parameters [#]_
s2t(s) Converts scattering parameters [#]_ to scattering transfer parameters [#]_ .
s2a(s, z0, Sequence[numbers.Number], …) Converts scattering parameters to abcd parameters [#]_ .
z2s(z, Sequence[numbers.Number], …) convert impedance parameters [1]_ to scattering parameters [2]_
z2y(z) convert impedance parameters [#]_ to admittance parameters [#]_
z2t(z) Not Implemented yet
z2a(z) Converts impedance parameters to abcd parameters [#]_ .
y2s(y, z0, Sequence[numbers.Number], …) convert admittance parameters [#]_ to scattering parameters [#]_
y2z(y) convert admittance parameters [#]_ to impedance parameters [#]_
y2t(y) Not Implemented Yet
t2s(t) converts scattering transfer parameters [#]_ to scattering parameters [#]_
t2z(t) Not Implemented Yet
t2y(t) Not Implemented Yet
fix_z0_shape(z0, Sequence[numbers.Number], …) Make a port impedance of correct shape for a given network’s matrix
renormalize_s(s, z_old, …) Renormalize a s-parameter matrix given old and new port impedances
passivity(s) Passivity metric for a multi-port network.
reciprocity(s) Reciprocity metric for a multi-port network.

Misc Functions

average(list_of_networks, polar) Calculates the average network from a list of Networks.
two_port_reflect(ntwk1, ntwk2) Generates a two-port reflective two-port, from two one-ports.
chopinhalf(ntwk, *args, **kwargs) Chops a sandwich of identical, reciprocal 2-ports in half.
Network.nudge(amount) Perturb s-parameters by small amount.
Network.renormalize(z_new, …) Renormalize s-parameter matrix given a new port impedances