skrf.media.freespace.Freespace
 class skrf.media.freespace.Freespace(frequency=None, z0_port=None, z0_override=None, z0=None, ep_r=1 + 0j, mu_r=1 + 0j, ep_loss_tan=None, mu_loss_tan=None, rho=None, *args, **kwargs)[source]
A planewave (TEM Mode) in Freespace.
A Freespace media can be constructed in two ways:
from complex, relative permativity and permeability OR
from real relative permativity and permeability with loss tangents.
There is also a method to initialize from a existing distributed circuit, appropriately named
Freespace.from_distributed_circuit()
 Parameters:
frequency (
Frequency
object) – frequency band of this transmission line mediumz0_port (number, arraylike, or None) – z0_port is the port impedance for networks generated by the media. If z0_port is not None, the networks generated by the media are renormalized (or in other words embedded) from the characteristic impedance z0 of the media to z0_port. Else if z0_port is None, the networks port impedances will be the raw characteristic impedance z0 of the media. (Default is None)
z0_override (number, arraylike, or None) – z0_override override the characteristic impedance for the media. If z0_override is not None, the networks generated by the media have their characteristic impedance z0 overrided by z0_override. (Default is None)
z0 (number, arraylike, or None) – deprecated parameter, alias to z0_override if z0_override is None. Emmit a deprecation warning.
ep_r (number, arraylike) – complex relative permittivity. negative imaginary is lossy.
mu_r (number, arraylike) – complex relative permeability. negative imaginary is lossy.
ep_loss_tan (None, number, arraylike) – electric loss tangent (of the permativity). If not None, imag(ep_r) is ignored.
mu_loss_tan (None, number, arraylike) – magnetic loss tangent (of the permeability). If not None, imag(mu_r) is ignored.
rho (number, arraylike, string or None) – resistivity (ohmm) of the conductor walls. If arraylike must be same length as frequency. if str, it must be a key in
skrf.data.materials
. Default is None (lossless).*args (arguments and keyword arguments)
**kwargs (arguments and keyword arguments)
Examples
>>> from skrf.media.freespace import Freespace >>> from skrf.frequency import Frequency >>> f = Frequency(75,110,101,'ghz') >>> Freespace(frequency=f, ep_r=11.9) >>> Freespace(frequency=f, ep_r=11.91.1j) >>> Freespace(frequency=f, ep_r=11.9, ep_loss_tan=.1) >>> Freespace(frequency=f, ep_r=11.91.1j, mu_r = 1.1.1j)
Attributes
Characteristic Impedance 

Real (attenuation) component of gamma. 

Imaginary (propagating) component of gamma. 

Complex dielectric permittivity. 

Complex permittivity with resistivity absorbed into its imaginary component. 

Propagation Constant, \(\gamma\). 

Complex dielectric permeability. 

Number of points of the frequency axis. 

Conductivity in ohm*m. 

Complex group velocity (in m/s). 

Complex phase velocity (in m/s). 

Return Characteristic Impedance z0_characteristic. 

Characteristic Impedance, \(z_0\). 

Port Impedance. 

Port Impedance. 
Methods
Ideal matched attenuator of a given length. 

Capacitor. 

Capacitor with Q factor. 

Copy of this Media object. 

Delayed load. 

Delayed open transmission line. 

Delayed Short. 

Calculate the complex electrical length for a given distance. 

Determines physical distance from a transmission or reflection Network. 

Initialize a freespace from 

Twoport network for an impedance mismatch. 

Inductor. 

Inductor with Q factor. 

Twoport isolator. 

Transmission line of a given length and impedance. 

Load of given reflection coefficient. 

Lossless, symmetric mismatch defined by its return loss. 

Perfect matched load (\(\Gamma_0 = 0\)). 

Create another mode in this medium. 

Open (\(\Gamma_0 = 1\)). 

Plot the real and imaginary part of the complex permittivity. 

Plot the real and imaginary part of the complex permittivity with resistivity. 

Plot the real and imaginary part of the complex permeability. 

Complex random network. 

Resistor. 

Short (\(\Gamma_0 = 1\)) 

Shunts a 

Shunted capacitor. 

Shunted delayed load. 

Shunted delayed open. 

Shunted delayed short. 

Shunted inductor. 

Shunted resistor. 

Ideal, lossless nway splitter. 

Ideal, lossless tee. 

Convert electrical length to physical distance. 

Matched transmission line of length 0. 

Translate various units of distance into meters. 

Complex zeromean gaussian whitenoise network. 

write this media's frequency, gamma, Z0, and z0 to a csv file. 