skrf.media.freespace.Freespace¶
 class skrf.media.freespace.Freespace(frequency=None, z0=None, ep_r=1 + 0j, mu_r=1 + 0j, ep_loss_tan=None, mu_loss_tan=None, rho=None, *args, **kwargs)[source]¶
A planewave (TEM Mode) in Freespace.
A Freespace media can be constructed in two ways:
from complex, relative permativity and permeability OR
from real relative permativity and permeability with loss tangents.
There is also a method to initialize from a existing distributed circuit, appropriately named
Freespace.from_distributed_circuit()
 Parameters
frequency (
Frequency
object) – frequency band of this transmission line mediumz0 (number, arraylike, or None) – the port impedance for media. Only needed if its different from the characteristic impedance of the transmission line. if z0 is None then will default to Z0
ep_r (number, arraylike) – complex relative permittivity. negative imaginary is lossy.
mu_r (number, arraylike) – complex relative permeability. negative imaginary is lossy.
ep_loss_tan (None, number, arraylike) – electric loss tangent (of the permativity). If not None, imag(ep_r) is ignored.
mu_loss_tan (None, number, arraylike) – magnetic loss tangent (of the permeability). If not None, imag(mu_r) is ignored.
rho (number, arraylike, string or None) – resistivity (ohmm) of the conductor walls. If arraylike must be same length as frequency. if str, it must be a key in
skrf.data.materials
. Default is None (lossless).*args (arguments and keyword arguments) –
**kwargs (arguments and keyword arguments) –
Examples
>>> from skrf.media.freespace import Freespace >>> from skrf.frequency import Frequency >>> f = Frequency(75,110,101,'ghz') >>> Freespace(frequency=f, ep_r=11.9) >>> Freespace(frequency=f, ep_r=11.91.1j) >>> Freespace(frequency=f, ep_r=11.9, ep_loss_tan=.1) >>> Freespace(frequency=f, ep_r=11.91.1j, mu_r = 1.1.1j)
Attributes
Characteristic Impedance, \(Z0\). 

Real (attenuation) component of gamma. 

Imaginary (propagating) component of gamma. 

Complex dielectric permittivity. 

Complex permittivity with resistivity absorbed into its imaginary component. 

Propagation Constant, \(\gamma\). 

Complex dielectric permeability. 

Number of points of the frequency axis. 

Conductivity in ohm*m. 

Complex group velocity (in m/s). 

Complex phase velocity (in m/s). 

Characteristic Impedance. 
Methods
Ideal matched attenuator of a given length. 

Capacitor. 

Copy of this Media object. 

Delayed load. 

Delayed open transmission line. 

Delayed Short. 

Calculate the complex electrical length for a given distance. 

Determines physical distance from a transmission or reflection Network. 

Initialize a freespace from 

Twoport network for an impedance mismatch. 

Inductor. 

Twoport isolator. 

Transmission line of a given length and impedance. 

Load of given reflection coefficient. 

Lossless, symmetric mismatch defined by its return loss. 

Perfect matched load (\(\Gamma_0 = 0\)). 

Create another mode in this medium. 

Open (\(\Gamma_0 = 1\)). 

Plot the real and imaginary part of the complex permittivity. 

Plot the real and imaginary part of the complex permittivity with resistivity. 

Plot the real and imaginary part of the complex permeability. 

Complex random network. 

Resistor. 

Short (\(\Gamma_0 = 1\)) 

Shunts a 

Shunted capacitor. 

Shunted delayed load. 

Shunted delayed open. 

Shunted delayed short. 

Shunted inductor. 

Ideal, lossless nway splitter. 

Ideal, lossless tee. 

Convert electrical length to physical distance. 

Matched transmission line of length 0. 

Translate various units of distance into meters. 

Complex zeromean gaussian whitenoise network. 

write this media's frequency, gamma, Z0, and z0 to a csv file. 